Niacinamide has an excellent whitening effect, but it is only suitable for people with healthy skin barrier; vitamin C is milder than other whitening ingredients; tranexamic acid has both brightening and moisturizing effects.
Anti-acne ingredients: salicylic acid, tretinoin
Acids can help metabolize keratin and unclog pores to improve acne. Salicylic acid and tretinoin are the two most common ones. It should be noted that sensitive skin and pregnant women should avoid acids.
Anti-aging ingredients: hexapeptide, astaxanthin
These two are relatively mild and efficient anti-aging ingredients. Hexapeptide smoothes wrinkles by promoting the production of collagen cells; astaxanthin can directly resist oxidation and scavenge free radicals.